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  • Rob Coles

Future Decoded: The Growth and Transformation of the IT Sector through AI, IoT, & Quantum Computing

EAG Strategy: Future of IT in UK and EU

The EAG ThinkTank has provided a brief overview of the growth of the IT sector since 2019 and its probable future through to 2030, including the advent of quantum computing to predict, prevent, and retaliate against cyberattacks.

IT Sector

The IT sector has seen substantial growth since 2019, driven by several factors. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the global economy has been significantly digitalized, with the IT sector playing a crucial role in this transformation. McKinsey's report highlights that the future of work will be heavily influenced by technology, leading to job transitions and the creation of new roles within the IT sector.

The IT sector has been a significant driver of economic growth and transformation since 2019. This growth has been fueled by several factors, including digitalization, technological advancements, and changes in the nature of work.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has highlighted the role of the IT sector in the significant digitalization of the global economy. Digitalization refers to the integration of digital technologies into everyday life by digitizing everything that can be digitized. It is the process of converting material or information into a digital format. This process has been accelerated by the widespread adoption of technologies such as cloud computing, big data, artificial intelligence, and the Internet of Things. These technologies have transformed various sectors, including finance, healthcare, education, and retail, among others. The IT sector has been at the forefront of this transformation, providing the necessary tools, platforms, and infrastructure.

In addition to driving digitalization, the IT sector has also been instrumental in shaping the future of work. According to a report by McKinsey, the nature of work is changing rapidly, with technology playing a key role in this transformation. Automation and artificial intelligence are leading to job transitions, with some roles becoming obsolete while new ones are being created. For instance, jobs that involve routine tasks are being automated, while there is increasing demand for roles that require skills in areas such as AI, data analysis, and cybersecurity. The IT sector is not only creating these new roles but also providing the training and tools needed to perform them.

Furthermore, the IT sector's growth has been fueled by increased investment in technology. Companies across various sectors are investing in IT to improve their efficiency, offer new products and services, and gain a competitive edge. This investment has led to increased demand for IT services and products, further driving the growth of the sector.

In summary, the IT sector has seen substantial growth since 2019, driven by the digitalization of the global economy, changes in the nature of work, and increased investment in technology. Given the ongoing technological advancements and the increasing importance of digital technologies in everyday life, this growth is likely to continue in the coming years.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

AI has been a significant contributor to this growth. Grand View Research reports that the AI market size was valued at USD 62.35 billion in 2020 and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 40.2% from 2021 to 2028. This growth is driven by increased data volumes, advanced algorithms, and improvements in computing power and storage.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been a transformative force in the IT sector and beyond, contributing significantly to the sector's growth. AI refers to the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. These processes include learning, reasoning, problem-solving, perception, and language understanding.

According to Grand View Research, the AI market size was valued at USD 62.35 billion in 2020. This value is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 40.2% from 2021 to 2028. This projection indicates the increasing adoption and integration of AI technologies across various industries.

One of the key drivers of this growth is the increase in data volumes. The advent of the digital age has led to the generation of massive amounts of data. Businesses and organizations across the globe are harnessing this data to gain insights, make informed decisions, and improve their operations. AI plays a crucial role in this process, as it enables the analysis and interpretation of large and complex data sets that would be difficult, if not impossible, to handle manually.

Advanced algorithms, such as those used by EAG, are another factor contributing to the growth of AI. These algorithms, which are the sets of rules or instructions that AI systems follow to solve problems or complete tasks, have become more sophisticated, enabling AI systems to perform more complex and diverse tasks. Machine learning, a subset of AI that involves the development of algorithms that allow computers to learn from and make decisions based on data, has been particularly influential in this regard.

Improvements in computing power and storage have also played a significant role in AI's growth. These advancements have made it possible to process large amounts of data quickly and efficiently, which is crucial for AI applications. They have also made AI technologies more accessible, as businesses and organizations no longer need to invest in expensive hardware to use AI.

In summary, AI has been a significant contributor to the growth of the IT sector, driven by increased data volumes, advanced algorithms, and improvements in computing power and storage. As these trends continue and as AI technologies become increasingly integrated into our everyday lives, the AI market is expected to continue its rapid growth.

EU Strategy will Drive UK IT Growth

The European Commission's digital targets for 2030 indicate a strong focus on digital skills, infrastructure, business digitization, and public services. These targets will likely drive further growth in the IT sector.

The European Commission's digital targets for 2030 reflect the region's commitment to fully embracing the digital transformation. These targets are part of a broader strategy to ensure that the European Union (EU) can compete globally while ensuring the digital inclusion and sustainability. The targets are focused on four key areas: digital skills, digital infrastructure, business digitization, and digital public services.

Digital Skills

The European Commission aims to improve digital literacy and competencies among EU citizens. The goal is to have at least 80% of adults have basic digital skills by 2030. This is crucial as the digital transformation creates new job opportunities that require digital competencies. Enhancing digital skills will not only help individuals to take advantage of these opportunities but also help businesses to find the talent they need to grow and innovate.

Digital Infrastructure

The Commission aims to improve connectivity across the EU. By 2030, all households in the EU should have access to gigabit connectivity, and all populated areas should be covered by 5G. This will ensure that all citizens and businesses can take full advantage of digital opportunities, regardless of where they are located.

Business Digitization

The Commission aims to increase the use of digital technologies by businesses. By 2030, three out of four companies should use cloud computing services, big data, and Artificial Intelligence. This will help businesses to improve their efficiency, offer new products and services, and compete in the global market.

Digital Public Services

The Commission aims to digitize public services to make them more accessible and efficient. By 2030, all key public services should be available online, and 80% of citizens should use an eID solution. This will make it easier for citizens to interact with the government and access the services they need.

These targets will likely drive further growth in the IT sector. The focus on digital skills will increase the demand for IT education and training services. The emphasis on digital infrastructure will drive investment in IT hardware and connectivity solutions. The push for business digitization will increase the demand for a wide range of IT services, from cloud computing to AI. Finally, the digitization of public services will create opportunities for IT companies to work with the public sector to develop and implement digital solutions

The Internet of Things (IoT):

This is another area of significant growth. According to 101 Blockchains, the consumer IoT market is expected to reach USD 104 billion by 2023, driven by the increasing adoption of smart home systems, wearables, and fitness trackers.

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with sensors, software, and network connectivity, which enables these objects to connect and exchange data. This technology has seen significant growth and is expected to continue expanding in the coming years.

According to 101 Blockchains, the consumer IoT market, which includes devices used in homes and by individuals, is expected to reach USD 104 billion by 2023. This growth is driven by several factors:

Smart Home Systems

These are systems that automate household activities. They can control lighting, climate, entertainment systems, and appliances. They can also include home security such as access control and alarm systems. The convenience and efficiency provided by these systems have led to their increased adoption.


These are smart electronic devices that can be worn on the body as accessories or implants. They include smartwatches, fitness bands, and wearable cameras. These devices have become popular due to their ability to monitor health, fitness, and provide other personalized services.

Fitness Trackers

These are devices or applications for monitoring and tracking fitness-related metrics such as distance walked or run, calorie consumption, and in some cases heartbeat and quality of sleep. The growing awareness of health and fitness has driven the growth of this market.

The growth of the IoT market is also being fueled by advancements in networking technologies, such as the rollout of 5G networks, which enable the rapid transfer of data between devices. Additionally, improvements in AI and machine learning are allowing for more sophisticated data analysis and decision-making capabilities in IoT devices.

However, the growth of the IoT also presents challenges, particularly in terms of security and privacy. As more devices become connected, the potential for security breaches increases, and there are also concerns about the amount of personal data that these devices collect and how it is used. Addressing these challenges will be crucial for the continued growth and acceptance of IoT technologies.

As for the future, the world is expected to witness large-scale changes and unexpected events in the next decade, driven by exponential technologies. The rise of new technology unicorns, particularly in the field of artificial intelligence, is anticipated.

The next decade is expected to bring about significant changes, largely driven by exponential technologies. Exponential technologies are those which are rapidly accelerating and shaping major industries and all aspects of our lives. They include artificial intelligence (AI), augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR), data science, digital biology and biotechnology, nanotechnology, robotics, and digital fabrication.

Artificial Intelligence

One of the key trends we can expect to see is the rise of new technology unicorns, particularly in the field of artificial intelligence. A 'unicorn' is a term used in the venture capital industry to describe a privately held startup company valued at over $1 billion. The term was coined in 2013 by venture capitalist Aileen Lee, choosing the mythical animal to represent the statistical rarity of such successful ventures.

Artificial intelligence, in particular, is poised to create a new wave of unicorns. AI's ability to learn from data and make predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed to do so makes it a powerful tool for a wide range of applications, from autonomous vehicles to personalized education, healthcare, and beyond. As AI technology continues to advance and become more accessible, we can expect to see a surge in innovative startups leveraging AI to create new products, services, and business models that disrupt existing industries and create new ones.

However, the rise of these new technology unicorns will not be without challenges. Issues such as data privacy, ethical considerations, regulatory compliance, and the potential for job displacement due to automation will all need to be addressed. Furthermore, these companies will need to navigate the complexities of scaling their technologies and business models in a rapidly changing technological landscape.

In summary, the next decade will likely see significant changes driven by exponential technologies. The rise of new technology unicorns, particularly in the field of AI, will be a key trend to watch. However, the path to success for these companies will require navigating a range of challenges and complexities.

Quantum Computing

Quantum computing is expected to play a crucial role in cybersecurity. A paper titled "A Survey of Cyber Security Approaches for Attack Detection, Prediction, and Prevention" discusses the expanding threat landscape and the need for more effective cybersecurity approaches. Quantum computing could provide the computational power needed to implement these approaches, making it possible to predict, prevent, and retaliate against cyberattacks more effectively.

Quantum computing is a rapidly developing field that promises to revolutionize many areas, including cybersecurity. Unlike classical computers, which use bits that can either be 0s or 1s, quantum computers use quantum bits, or qubits, which can represent and store large amounts of data. This ability to handle and process vast amounts of data simultaneously gives quantum computers a potential edge over classical computers, particularly in tasks that require significant computational power.

In the context of cybersecurity, quantum computing could play a crucial role in enhancing our ability to predict, prevent, and retaliate against cyberattacks. As the paper "A Survey of Cyber Security Approaches for Attack Detection, Prediction, and Prevention" discusses, the threat landscape is expanding, and there is a need for more effective cybersecurity approaches. Current methods often struggle to keep up with the volume and sophistication of attacks, and many are reactive, only triggered when an incident is reported.

Quantum computing could help address these challenges in several ways:

Improved Encryption: Quantum computers could potentially create virtually unbreakable encryption, enhancing the security of data transmission and storage. Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a method of encryption where the security of the key is guaranteed by the laws of quantum physics.

Efficient Threat Detection

Quantum algorithms could help detect anomalies in large datasets quickly and accurately, helping to identify potential threats before they cause damage.

Advanced Predictive Capabilities: By processing and analyzing vast amounts of data, quantum computers could help predict potential cyberattacks, allowing organizations to take preventative measures.

Fast Response to Threats

Quantum computers' processing power could enable faster responses to cyber threats, minimizing damage and downtime.

However, it's important to note that while quantum computing holds great promise, it also presents new challenges. For instance, quantum computers could potentially break many of the encryption algorithms currently in use, posing a significant threat to data security. As such, the development of quantum-resistant algorithms is a crucial area of research in the field of cybersecurity.

In conclusion, while still in its early stages, quantum computing is expected to play a crucial role in the future of cybersecurity, providing the computational power needed to implement more effective approaches to predicting, preventing, and retaliating against cyberattacks.


The IT sector has seen significant growth since 2019 and is expected to continue growing through to 2030. The advent of technologies such as AI, IoT, and quantum computing will likely drive this growth, transforming the way we live and work. However, these technologies also present new challenges, particularly in the area of cybersecurity, that will need to be addressed.

The IT sector's growth since 2019 has been remarkable, and the momentum is expected to continue through to 2030. This growth is largely driven by the advent and adoption of transformative technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), and quantum computing. These technologies are not just reshaping the IT sector but are also transforming various aspects of our lives and work.

Artificial Intelligence, with its ability to learn from and make decisions based on data, is revolutionizing industries from healthcare to finance. The Internet of Things, which allows for the interconnection of everyday objects, is changing the way we interact with our environment. Quantum computing, with its potential for immense computational power, is set to redefine what is computationally possible, with significant implications for fields such as cybersecurity.

However, as these technologies continue to evolve and become more integrated into our lives, they also present new challenges. Cybersecurity, in particular, is a growing concern. As more devices become interconnected and as AI and quantum computing advance, new vulnerabilities and threats emerge. Protecting against these threats and ensuring the privacy and security of data is a significant challenge that will require ongoing attention and innovation.

In conclusion, the IT sector is on a trajectory of significant growth and transformation, driven by the advent of AI, IoT, and quantum computing. While these technologies present exciting opportunities, they also bring new challenges that need to be addressed. The ability of the IT sector, and society more broadly, to navigate these challenges will be crucial in realizing the full potential of these technologies and ensuring a secure and inclusive digital future.

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